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    4th Element - Attribute


    opmo

    The largest element of the OMN language is ATTRIBUTE. This term covers the many hundreds of symbols and words that describe musical expression. 
    These terms are divided up very broadly within the OMN Glossary into two groupings: Articulations, Ornaments and Marks affecting all instrumental and vocal performance; Strings, Woodwind and Brass performance indicators being specific only to those instruments.

     

    Articulations cover Accents, Cesura, Fermata, Legato, Ties and Pedal. In musical performance these words, signs and symbols indicate a specific way of controlling the dynamic, intensity or duration of a musical event. This may be a single instance or covering a group of events.

     

    Ornaments are closely linked to articulation but usually include the addition of further pitches and subsequent changes in duration. Ornaments in OMN include Acciaccatura, Appoggiatura, Arpeggio, Glissando, Mordent, Trill, Tremolo, Turn and Two-note Tremolo. Ornamentation was once a required art for the musician to master with an expectation in the 17C and 18C that performers would freely embellish notated music as a matter of course, often going way beyond what was indicated in a score. In contemporary music ornamentation, whilst still using the symbols of Baroque performance practice, is most usually a precise and obligatory requirement seeking to give a special intensity to individual pitched events.

     

    Marks cover the many general performance indications found on a notated score that govern all instruments and voices. These include Repeat Signs and Rehearsal Marks.

     

    In OMN, performance instructions for woodwind and brass include the now common terms found in contemporary scores first collected together in Bruno Bartolozzi’s New Sounds for Woodwind. These may be linked through def-sound-set to available sample sets of woodwind and brass attack transients.

     

    For strings, performance instructions in OMN are comprehensively cited and in conjunction with a sample library can be used to trigger complex mixtures and layers of timbre type. Included within OMN are Arco, Pizz, Col Legno, Harmonics, Pizzicato, String, Sul Ponticello, Sul Tasto, Bowing Techniques and Vibrato.



    Reset

    norm
    ord
    nat
    non-trem
    sim
    ad-lib


    Strings Articulations

    arco-tasto
    tasto
    alto-tasto
    extr-tasto
    molto-tasto
    arco-ponte
    poco-ponte
    ponte
    molto-ponte
    da-ponte
    extr-ponte
    alto-ponte
    flaut
    spicc
    gettato
    ricochet
    jete
    crini
    arco
    arco-ord
    arco-lento
    tallone
    punta
    vib
    senza-vib
    con-vib
    vib-norm
    non-vib
    poco-vib
    molto-vib
    secco
    vib-ord
    legno
    legno-batt
    legno-tratto
    batt
    tasto-ponte
    tasto-ponte-tasto
    ponte-tasto-ponte
    ponte-tasto
    espr
    lh-pizz
    pizz
    pizz-nail
    snap
    pizz-ord
    pizz-trem
    slap
    lh-slap
    tap
    knock
    pizz-chit
    unis
    div
    tutti
    solo
    soli
    sulla-corda
    tutto-arco
    arm
    non-arm

     

    Bow

    ubow
    dbow

     

    Open String

    sul
    sul1
    sul2
    sul3
    sul4
    sul5
    sulg
    suld
    sula
    sule
    sulc


    Brass / Wind

    flutter-tongue
    half-depressed-valves
    hit-on-mouthpiece
    insert-straight-mute-into-bell
    kiss
    mouthpiece-backwards
    mouthpiece-only
    play-and-sing
    silent-brass
    snap-with-a-finger-on-the-bell
    stop-mute-closed
    stop-mute-open
    stop-mute-wahwah-effect
    without-mouthpiece
    air-noise-f
    air-noise-h
    air-noise-k
    air-noise-p
    air-noise-s
    air-noise-sh
    air-noise-t
    without-tubings
    over-blow
    under-blow
    harsh-blow
    without-air
    low-noise-blow
    high-noise-blow
    finger-damp
    hum
    breathy

     

    Tongue

    frull
    tong1
    tong2
    tong3
    tong-blocked
    tong-soft
    tong-hard


    Handbell

    hbmart


    Accents

    stacc
    stacs
    mart
    marc
    ten
    deta


    Harmonic

    harm
    harm2


    Muting

    mute
    unmute
    open
    con-sord
    senza-sord
    via-sord


    Grace Note

    app
    app-h
    acc-h
    app.
    -app
    -app-h
    -acc-h
    -app.
    app-q
    acc-q
    -app-q
    -acc-q
    acc
    app-e
    acc-e
    acc.
    -acc
    -app-e
    -acc-e
    -acc.
    app-s
    acc-s
    app-t
    acc-t
    app-x
    acc-x
    -app-s
    -acc-s
    -app-t
    -acc-t
    -app-x
    -acc-x


    Arpeggio

    arp
    arp-up
    arp-down
    arp-adlib


    Trill

    tr1-s
    tr1
    tr1-t
    tr1-x
    tr1-3e
    tr1-3s
    tr1-5q
    tr1-5e
    tr1-7q
    tr1-7e
    tr2-s
    tr2
    tr2-t
    tr2-x
    tr2-3e
    tr2-3s
    tr2-5q
    tr2-5e
    tr2-7q
    tr2-7e
    ltr1-s
    ltr1-t
    ltr1
    ltr1-x
    ltr1-3e
    ltr1-3s
    ltr1-5q
    ltr1-5e
    ltr1-7q
    ltr1-7e
    ltr2-s
    ltr2-t
    ltr2
    ltr2-x
    ltr2-3e
    ltr2-3s
    ltr2-5q
    ltr2-5e
    ltr2-7q
    ltr2-7e


    Tremolo

    trem-e
    trem-s
    trem
    trem-t
    trem-x
    trem-3e
    trem-3s
    trem-3t
    trem-5q
    trem-5e
    trem-5s
    trem-5t
    trem-7q
    trem-7e
    trem-7s
    trem-7t


    Two-Note-Tremolo

    ttrem-e
    ttrem-s
    ttrem
    ttrem-t
    ttrem-x
    ttrem-3e
    ttrem-3s
    ttrem-3t
    ttrem-5q
    ttrem-5e
    trem-5s
    trem-5t
    ttrem-7q
    ttrem-7e
    ttrem-7s
    ttrem-7t


    Fermata

    fermata
    fermata-s
    fermata-vs
    fermata-l
    fermata-vl


    Cesura

    cesura
    cesura2
    cesura3
    cesura4
    cesura5
    cesura6


    Comma

    comma
    comma2
    comma3
    comma4
    comma5
    comma6


    Mordent


    Upper

    mordent1
    mordent1-x
    mordent1-t
    mordent2
    mordent2-x
    mordent2-t


    Lower

    lmordent1
    lmordent1-x
    lmordent1-t
    lmordent2
    lmordent2-x
    lmordent2-t


    Upper Double

    dmordent1
    dmordent1-x
    dmordent1-t
    dmordent2
    dmordent2-x
    dmordent2-t


    Lower Double

    ldmordent1
    ldmordent1-x
    ldmordent1-t
    ldmordent2
    ldmordent2-x
    ldmordent2-t


    Turn


    Upper

    turn12
    turn22
    turn21
    turn11
    turn12-s
    turn22-s
    turn21-s
    turn11-s
    turn12-x
    turn22-x
    turn21-x
    turn11-x


    Lower

    lturn12
    lturn22
    lturn21
    lturn11
    lturn12-s
    lturn22-s
    lturn21-s
    lturn11-s
    lturn12-x
    lturn22-x
    lturn21-x
    lturn11-x


    Upper Classic

    cturn12
    cturn22
    cturn21
    cturn11
    cturn12-5e
    cturn22-5e
    cturn21-5e
    cturn11-5e


    Lower Classic

    lcturn12
    lcturn22
    lcturn21
    lcturn11
    lcturn12-5e
    lcturn22-5e
    lcturn21-5e
    lcturn11-5e



    Key Slap

    key-slap


    Harp

    bisb
    thin-pick
    between-tuning-peg-and-tuning-mechanism
    clang
    close-to-table
    dampened
    fingernail
    hand-on-the-corpus
    hand-on-the-strings
    knuckle-on-the-corpus
    semitone-downwards
    semitone-upwards
    wholetone-downwards
    wholetone-upwards
    pedal-noise
    tuning-wrench
    hit
    xylophone-tone


    Cue Notes


    (50% Size Note)

    cue


    Number

    num0
    num1
    num2
    num3
    num4
    num5
    num6
    num7
    num8
    num9
    num10
    num11
    num12


    Finger

    dig1
    dig2
    dig3
    dig4
    dig5


    Repeat

    repeat


    Ending

    end1
    end2
    end3
    end4
    end5
    end6
    end7
    end8
    end9
    end10


    Legato

    leg


    Tie

    tie


    Glissando

    gliss
    gliss2
    gliss3
    gliss4
    kgliss
    kgliss-ch


    Octave Shifts

    8va
    8vb
    15ma
    15mb


    Pedals

    ped1
    ped
    half-ped1
    half-ped
    sost-ped1
    sost-ped
    una-corda1
    una-corda


    Hand

    ms
    md
    lh
    rh


    User Attributes


    The ADD-TEXT-ATTRIBUTES function allows you to add your own list of attribute names (playing techniques) to the system.

     

    (add-text-attributes
     '(ord-tasto "ord⟶tasto")
     '(tasto-ponte "sul tasto⟶pont.")
     )


    Example

    A. Webern, Streichtrio, op. 20, 1927

    '((e bb4 p> leg s fs5 stacc fs5 stacc+pizz -
         (acc b3 arco+harm+leg) c4 pp c4 stacc+pizz -
         a5 p> arco+leg d6 stacc (acc cs5 leg) gs4 stacc -)
      (s cs5 pp stacc+pizz (acc a5 leg+arco) gs4 stacc
         -e -s gs4 p> stacc+ten (acc a5 leg) d6 stacc eb4 pp ten+pizz))

    at1.png

     

     

    A. Webern, Sechs Bagatellen für Streichquartett, 1913

    '((-e -s (leg eb5 pp< ponte+con-sord 3e a6 < eb5 < a6 < leg))
      ((leg 3e eb5 mp> a6 > eb5 >) -e -e)
      (-e -3e - (leg+stacc e4 ppp< < < p)))

    at2.png

     

     

    Next page Prerequisite

    Edited by opmo


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  • Introduction to Opusmodus

    Contents A Contemporary Language for Making Music The Parametric World of Music The Parametric Instrument Learning Opusmodus : A Strategy Important Questions: Necessary Answers

    A Contemporary Language for Making Music Composing, like most art-making, is a messy business, It is rarely radio in the head. You don’t turn it on and there it is. A composer goes searching for music. It’s out there somewhere, but it has to be detected, discovered, and then deciphered into music’s own language. To do this requires experiment and imagination.    In the 1980s MIDI provided a contemporary language for musical events that let us use computers for recording and editing already conceived ideas. But MIDI is not a natural language, and programming with it is a highly specialist task. Composers want and need a straightforward contemporary language for music that whilst relating to traditional staff notation, and MIDI too, enables the origination of novel ideas and new forms of making. Such a language is parametric: found in and used by Opusmodus.
    The Parametric World of Music Musical events belong in a network of parameters: pitch, note duration and rhythm, dynamics, articulation, and at a higher-level tonality, harmony and musical structure itself. They are all connected. In Opusmodus, we are ‘Parametrical’.   Increasingly composers create novel musical events by interacting with musical parameters written or ‘found’ through separating them out, processing them, and then putting them back together again. Rhythms are constructed through additive and subtractive processes, pitch aggregates are formulated with magic squares and statistical algorithms, integers, intervals and random numbers are often starting points, ways to ‘make a mark’, to fill the blank page (or screen).   Many starting points in music composition are not based on sound at all, but on geometric structure, proportion, chaotic incidence, visual relationships, movement, poetry and prose. Whatever these may be they will need to be pulled somehow onto the musical stave. This remains the format our culture continues to invest in as a notation-led end result, the common currency of most music education, professional performers, ensembles and orchestras. Much new art and media music continues to reach us through such notated scores composed by bringing together those commonplace parametric elements. 

    The Parametric Instrument With a Parametric Instrument for Composing Music it becomes possible to network musical parameters into inherently variable, adaptive forms that combine into unique and often surprising continuously differentiated fields or systems. This is what Opusmodus does.   Musical practice in composition is no longer style-oriented or system-based. It can be everything and anything. Composers can be insatiably curious about the possibilities of phenomena that lie outside music, because so much around us is now understood and able to be captured as data. And so composers need the wherewithal to make conversions of such data to live in the parametric world of music. Opusmodus has the parametric tools to make this happen.   Don’t necessarily expect a previous experience with technology to open the door straightaway to what Opusmodus has to offer. This is not about point and click, play and record, copy and paste. It is about thinking and scripting; it is about building expressions made of functions that are able to process or generate one or many musical parameters and provide an output that can be seen and heard, instantly. Opusmodus provides a fast and robust feedback loop for musical ideas.
    Learning Opusmodus : A Strategy If you’ve learnt a language there’s a similarity. You might go to a class or know a native speaker, then you can listen, copy and eventually talk. Otherwise you’ll use a CD and a book, or interact with a web-based tutor. At some point you’ll have to work on vocabulary, and maybe learn to write. The language of Opusmodus requires something similar.       • Take a look and listen to the example scores.
        • Read the Preliminaries. 
        • Take a Tutorial.
        • Browse the Documentation, the vocabulary of Opusmodus.
        • Study the score-scripts.
        • Modify these scores and start to write your own.   The tutorial resources can be accessed from within Opusmodus itself. You’ll find Quick Start, a guide providing the necessary basics. Then there are Lessons: a 30-part collection of score-scripts and text commentaries designed to be opened simultaneously.

    Important Questions: Necessary Answers Be sure, you’ll find in all these learning resources something to fire up the imagination. Browse as much as you can, and begin to ask yourself what is it that makes up my musical language? What are the elements and common processes I already use when making a piece of music?   Do I know how a piece of my own music is composed? Is it really trial and error, continuous experimentation until it ‘sounds right’ or are there methods, techniques, pathways you’ve already established or invented? Such questioning is a highly recommended exercise. And if you don’t have the answers, learning Opusmodus will prove a unique way into musical literacy!     Whatever the answers to these questions, bite the bullet with one of the early tutorial guides. Approach these little score-scripts in a spirit of play. The more time you can devote to playful experimentation before starting on that next commission or project the better. Again, think of learning a foreign language. You may learn enough Italian in a Day with a CD to ‘get by’ but to understand and use the language you have to go further. It’s the same with Opusmodus. Learning takes time, but it will prove such an enriching process, and one that brings together understanding with knowledge: about the music you compose and how you compose it. If you are new to scripting, don’t shy away from the basics. Once you have them you won’t look back and all kinds of possibilities will open up.   Next page Reference

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    opmo
    Tutorial Guide 0
  • Introduction to OMN the language

    OMN is designed as a scripting language for musical events. It’s not about sounds themselves, it is about their control and organisation in a musical composition. As a linear script rather than a graphic stave, musical events can be transformed, extended, reorganised by powerful computer algorithms. Some sequencers and score writers provide basic algorithms, but they do not represent the way composers now think about the process of music composition. Composing has become such a multi-faceted process and takes ideas about structure and content from many disciplines: mathematics, astronomy, literature, the visual arts. As such it requires extensive mental resources and experience from the composer. Much of this is still done by hand and eye and brain because although computer systems do exist to help the process along they don’t provide what has become known as the composing continuum. This means that a single workspace and workflow environment has not been generally available that can take in the whole process of composing a piece - from first thoughts to a printed score and reference recording. Wouldn’t it be good to be able to do everything in one place?   Most composers acquire a bag full of musical tools to act on musical ideas. These still include those tools Bach used for repetition, inversion, retrograde, transposition, but with computer help musical material can be copied, cut, pasted and generally structured and orchestrated. Since the 1950s composers have been experimenting with tools and processes that take musical transformation into wholly new areas; of random numbers, fractals, statistical distribution, graphical plotting to name just a few. To use such experimental things it is composing with a script that is acknowledged as the most efficient and practical way forward. And to work with a script means working with a language: OMN.
    Contents OMN and Musical Notation The Concept The Four Elements Length Pitch Velocity Attribute Repetition Assemble And Disassemble Algorithms The Way Forward

    OMN and Musical Notation
    The truly original aspect of OMN is that it has been designed to speak directly to traditional musical notation. Everything written in OMN script can be rendered instantly to notation and to a performance simulation. For most composers staff notation remains the common currency they have to work in and with. You couldn’t expect performers to read from a MIDI event display or indeed from OMN script. As the OMN language is laid out and explored we’ll see just how fully the language of music staff notation is mirrored. This is not just in the standard elements of rhythms, pitch and dynamics but in the vast library of musical attributes that cover the way pitches and rhythms are performed by different instruments and voices. So musical notation is always there. Whatever you write there can be an instant ’snippet’ rendered to view alongside your script.

    The Concept
    Most languages have developed orderings for parts of speech. Romance languages place the verb after the subject, and in the middle of the sentence. Germanic languages tend to conclude sentences with a verb. In music we’re used to the single intersection of pitch position on a stave line with a rhythmic symbol with or without a stem.   In developing a right concept for the OMN language much thought was given to choosing the most effective ordering of elements. Culturally our music is one governed by our past experiences, elements of musical tradition gathered through informal and formal musical education, and what is active in the memory. Descartes adage ‘Cogito ergo sum’ (‘I think, therefore I am’) remains an important cornerstone of an individual’s relationship with composing music. It is something known. It is a made thing; it possess architecture. We can say with confidence that we experience music in a hierarchical sequence of time, existence, dynamics and expression. So it is right that the linear ordering of OMN reflects this. In architecture this might be translated as dimension, materials, volume of space, decoration. These are established architectural parametrics able to form the basis for CAD rendering in the new parametric systems architects are now using to allow the conditions surrounding to influence design. OMN is a language wholly sympathetic to parametric composition in music. 

    The Four Elements      
    Length
    OMN was created to think about the element of TIME first. After all we can be musical without a pitched note being present. If we are going to use the OMN script we need a reference guide to help us whilst we learn the language. What accompanies this introduction is a special dictionary of language terms arranged in the four elements that make up the concept. However, there are some necessary redefinitions required. TIME is a very general element that subdivides in music to rhythm and length. When we describe what makes up a rhythm in notation it is usually a mixture of symbols that have different lengths. So the OMN vocabulary uses the term LENGTH as its general title.  (q) 
    Pitch
    The second element of the OMN language is PITCH. Although each piece of music is defined by the length of time, it only starts to EXIST as a proper musical entity when pitch is added.   (q c4)
    Velocity
    The third element of the OMN language is VELOCITY. Staff notation has a set of common symbols that are formed from the first letter of Italian words for degrees of intensity we want to attach to a note or a phrase. In OMN there are 12 such terms ranging from ppppp to fffff. OMN includes many symbols that can only be classed as Dynamics because they are not identified directly with a data value. 
      (e c4 mp)
    Attribute
    The fourth element of the OMN language is ATTRIBUTE. The number of general symbols and words used to describe expression in music is vast: tenuto, staccato, legato, trill, fermata etc... Many instruments, particularly those of the string family have their own vocabulary of technical expressive terms: pizzicato, sul ponticello, flautando. Remarkably these can be included in an OMN script and, if your sampler has a string effects library, these expressive instructions can be realised directly. 
      (e c4 mp trem)   Finally, there is SIMULTANEITY possible in the layering of attributes. This is achieved by the + symbol.   (q c4 mp trem+fermata)
    Repetition
    An important fifth element of REPETITION  is also present in the OMN language structure.   (q c4 q c4)
    equals   (q c4 =)
    Assemble And Disassemble
    It is valuable to remember that the composer may need to create material one parameter at a time. OMN allows for discrete parameters to be brought together to make a composite list in OMN. By the same token it may also be necessary to focus on just a single parameter to develop further the argument of a composition. An OMN list can easily be disassembled into its component parts for such work to take place and then made back into an OMN list.   (disassemble-omn '(q c4 mp d4 e4 e f4 f g4)) => (:length (1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/8) :pitch (c4 d4 e4 f4 g4) :velocity (mp mp mp f f) :articulation (- - - - -))   (make-omn :length '(q q q e e)           :pitch '(c4 d4 e4 f4 g4)           :velocity '(mp mp mp f f)) => (q c4 mp d4 e4 e f4 f g4)
    Algorithms
    OMN script responds directly to the Opusmodus library of algorithmic functions, and with keywords particular elements can be selected to be processed or not.   (pitch-transpose 6 '(q c4 mp d4 e4 e f4 f g4)) => (q fs4 mp gs4 bb4 e b4 f cs5)
    The Way Forward
    This introduction should set you on your way. With what has been covered here, the Tutorial Guide files will demonstrate how closely the OMN language can be integrated with algorithmic composing. In fact, when composing in this way you’ll often only write material in one parameter at a time. Although every function will read an OMN list, it’s often better to keep parameters apart to begin with. You’ll see this clearly in the Tutorial files.   There will be some music projects where writing directly in OMN is really necessary. Composing for voice is certainly one medium. There are examples in the How To section to demonstrate word setting with full attention given to syllabic splitting. For more experimental approaches to composing OMN can be integrated with the conversion of integers and intervals into the parameter of pitch. The Tutorials show how this can be achieved with examples that use pitch-class sets to create tone rows. OMN is a way of scripting the whole language of traditional staff notation and modes of experimental and conceptual composition using the tools of parametric modelling. It is a language that responds to the future of music presentation, as notation moves inextricably from the printed page to the backlit digital display.   New music technology has focused largely on production and presentation, whereas the conceptualisation and origination of new music requires a very different paradigm. Sequencer and Scorewriters continue to provide valuable ways into composition. Opusmodus provides the 3rd way forward, and one driven by its own notation script: OMN.   OMN is perfect for those ‘on the fly’ experiments that all composers make when they are starting out on a project. It is like having a piano close by to try out this or that, but one that always plays what’s written quite flawlessly. What is wonderful about scripting is that those experiments if successful can remain part of the score for the whole progress of the composition. With OMN a composing continuum can be achieved.   OMN may look a little hard to decipher at first, but once the logic is understood, be assured, OMN can be read with ease. OMN is the first notation that has been designed from the outset to communicate with MusicXML the de facto standard for communication of notated scores between different software applications. Opusmodus scripts can be converted seamlessly into both Midi and MusicXML.   Next page 1st Element - Length

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